At the beginning of the 21st century we witnessed an exponential technological development that included applications in the fields of education, security, employability, health, personal autonomy, and social relations, among others. All these applications incorporate, implicitly or explicitly, a theory of cognition, that is, a theory of how the mind works and how humans can interact with these technologies. Following this development, new questions regarding technology and its relation to cognition are being posed in the Cognitive Sciences, broadening fields of study and opening new research lines. In particular, the rise of the 4E approach to cognition (embodied, embedded, enactive, and extended) can be noticed in the design of technologies like augmented reality or serious games. At the same time, studies in sensory substitution or social robotics offer innovative insights and theoretical discussions on the nature of cognition. With this special issue, we want to promote the discussion of the connections between technology and cognition from a 4E perspective.